Sometimes, you might want to cite a source without a named author in your work. But how can you do this? Here, we'll explain how to cite anonymous works using Chicago footnote referencing, including works attributed to 'Anonymous'.\n\nWorks Without a Named Author\nSome sources don't name an individual (or individuals) as an author. In most cases like these, you can cite an organisational author instead. This will either be a group credited with writing the source or the publishing organisation.\nSometimes, though, you won't be able to find an organisational author to cite either. When this happens in Chicago footnote referencing, you can start citations with the work\u2019s title in place of an author's name. For example, the first footnote citation for a web page with no known author might look like this:\n1. 'The Secret to My Anonymity', Medium, last modified 12 March 2020, https:\/\/medium.com\/anonymous-articles\/secret-to-anonymity.\nYou can then use the same principle in the bibliography entry, moving the title to the start of your reference. For instance:\n'The Secret to My Anonymity'. Medium. Last modified 12 March 2020. https:\/\/medium.com\/anonymous-articles\/secret-to-anonymity.\nWhen listing a source alphabetically by its title in a Chicago bibliography, ignore any initial articles. For instance, to reference 'The Secret to My Anonymity', we would ignore the initial 'The' (i.e. the definite article) and list it under 'S' for 'Secret'.\n\nWorks Attributed to \u2018Anonymous\u2019\nA slightly different issue is when a work is published under the name 'Anonymous'.\nTo cite these kinds of anonymous works in Chicago footnote referencing, if the author is truly unknown, you can simply treat \u2018Anonymous\u2019 as the author\u2019s name in footnotes and the bibliography. For example:\nFootnote for an Anonymous Book\n2. Anonymous, My Secret Identity (London: Secret Books, 2006).\nBibliography Entry for an Anonymous Book\nAnonymous. My Secret Identity. London: Secret Books, 2006.\n\u2018Anonymous\u2019 is effectively the author\u2019s name here. As such, you should list works attributed to an anonymous author alphabetically under \u2018A\u2019 in your bibliography.\n\nAnonymous Works with a Suspected Author\nFinally, sometimes a source is published anonymously, but the name of the author is later revealed (or someone is named as the suspected author).\nWith anonymous works like these, place the suspected author\u2019s name in square brackets. If their authorship is uncertain, add a question mark. For example:\nFootnote for an Anonymous Book\n3. [Miles Taylor], A Warning (New York: Twelve, 2019).\nBibliography Entry for an Anonymous Book\n[Taylor, Miles]. A Warning. New York: Twelve, 2019.\nAs with all sources that have a named author (even a less than certainly named one), you should list entries like this by the author's surname in your bibliography.\n\nChicago Referencing Proofreading\nHopefully, you should now be able to cite sources without an author using Chicago footnote referencing. If you'd like more help with your work, though, our editors are referencing experts. Upload a 500-word trial document today to find out more.