How to Use Acronyms in Academic Writing
  • 4-minute read
  • 24th February 2015

How to Use Acronyms in Academic Writing

In academic writing, you may need to use acronyms and initialisms. However, these are easy to misuse, especially when introducing them in an essay. So, how exactly do you use acronyms and initialisms in academic writing? And how to do you avoid using them incorrectly? Let’s take a look.

What Is an Acronym?

Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the first letters of the words in a phrase or an organisation’s name:

  • Acronyms are pronounced as one word (e.g. UNICEF).
  • Each letter in an initialism is pronounced separately (e.g. BBC).

We use these abbreviations instead of the full terminology to save space or avoid repetition. For example, ‘UNESCO’ is much shorter than ‘United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’.

People sometimes think there is no need to introduce a well-known acronym or initialism. However, since many have more than one meaning, this can be confusing (as the World Wildlife Fund and the World Wrestling Federation ably demonstrated for many years).

Likewise, even if you are familiar with an acronym, other people might not be, especially if it is specific to your topic. As such, you should make the effort to define acronyms clearly when you introduce them in an essay.

How to Use Acronyms and Initialisms

When writing an essay, you should assume that your audience will not understand the abbreviations you use unless you have been told otherwise.

The first time you use one, write out the full terminology with the acronym/initialism in parentheses afterwards, like so:

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was first established…

You can then continue to refer to it as ‘UNESCO’ throughout your essay.

The one exception here is when the acronym/initialism is more common than the actual name. Most people know the package delivery company United Parcel Service, for example, as UPS.

In cases like this, you can sometimes give the shortened version first and full terminology in parentheses:

The delivery company UPS (United Parcel Service) is known for…

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After introducing the term like this, you can use the shortened version throughout the rest of your essay.

Capitalising Acronyms and Initialisms

Initialisms (i.e. abbreviations that are pronounced letter by letter) are almost always written in all caps (e.g. BBC, FBI, WWF). There are some exceptions to this, such as when ‘Transport for London’ is abbreviated to ‘TfL’. In most cases, though, you will need to capitalise each letter in an initialism.

This varies a bit more for acronyms (i.e. abbreviations pronounced as a single word). Some British English style guides recommend only capitalising the first letter of these terms (e.g. Unesco or Unicef). If you are using a style guide, it is thus worth checking it for advice on how to write acronyms. Otherwise, this is simply a matter of preference (just make sure to use a consistent capitalisation style throughout your writing).

In addition, there are a few common words that began as acronyms. These include ‘radar’ (short for ‘radio detection and ranging‘) and ‘laser’ (short for ‘light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation’). However, most people don’t even realise that these words were originally abbreviations, and they are always written with lowercase letters.

Make Sure to Check the First Instance of the Acronym!

Many people edit and re-structure their essays at the last minute. In doing so, they may accidentally use an acronym somewhere before they defined it in the first draft, making it harder to understand.

To prevent this, though, you can use the ‘find’ function in MS Word:

  • Open the search bar in MS Word (e.g. hit Ctrl + F in Word for Windows).
  • Type the initialism you want to check into the search bar.
  • Find the first use in the document.

If the first use of each abbreviation comes with the full terminology, all is well. If not, find the place you defined it and move the full terminology.

Creating a List of Abbreviations

If your work contains a large number of acronyms, you may want to create a list of abbreviations. Typically, this is a list at the start of a document that defines all the initialisms, acronyms, and other abbreviations.

The reader can then check this list if they need to know the meaning of an abbreviation. This can be especially useful in longer documents, as it saves the reader having to find where the abbreviation is first used and defined.


  • Explain acronyms and initialisms the first time you use them.
  • Use the find function to check you have defined acronyms and initialisms.
  • Send your work off for a final proofread before submitting.

Good luck!

Comments (14)
Hilary Muchira Gitari
1st October 2017 at 08:04
Write your comments here the article is helpful so far for somebody who is starting using acronyms
27th September 2018 at 20:11
Thank you a lot. It's an important thing to know if you are a student who needs to make assignments.
10th September 2019 at 15:14
Good info. Quick question though, When using more than one acronym in a sentence, is it ever proper to put the Acronym first and then the spelled out phrase in parentheses? e.g. Project LEAD (Leadership in Extracurricular activities, Academics and Daily living). If there's more than one acronym in a sentence, it gets very cumbersome to read. Thanks!
    11th September 2019 at 11:37
    Hi, Jackie. As with anything acronym based, it can vary depending on whether you're following a specific style guide, but as a general rule you'd usually give the full terminology first and acronyms in parentheses on all occasions. I may not quite follow your meaning, though, as presumably you'd be giving the full terminology and abbreviation in both cases regardless of which one you put in brackets? If you find you're using a lot of acronyms, one option would be to give a separate list of abbreviations at the start of the document. Alternatively, if it is just that you don't want to introduce two abbreviations in a single sentence, is there a way that you could break up the sentence or introduce one term earlier in the paragraph? It's hard to recommend anything for sure without knowing the context, so you may want to submit a trial document for proofreading if you'd like specific advice on an issue (just add a comment when uploading the document noting the problem sentence):
12th October 2019 at 16:33
What about for long papers, reiterating what the acronym means. I was writing a white paper with an introduced acronym in the beginning and used a few time. That acronym was uncommon and very technical and doesn't get used again for 11 pages or so, then is used fairly often. Is it reasonable to reaffirm the acronym meaning (especially if it's quite technical) if I suspect my readers will have to otherwise look up the meaning again as many of them won't even be in the scientific field? Or will people think that's weird?
    14th October 2019 at 09:05
    Hi, Luke. In a longer paper, you may want to include a list of abbreviations (we've now added something about this to the post): If your work contains a large number of acronyms, you may want to create a list of abbreviations. Typically, this is a list at the start of a document that defines all the initialisms, acronyms, and other abbreviations. The reader can then check this list if they need to know the meaning of an abbreviation. This can be especially useful in longer documents, as it saves the reader having to find where the abbreviation is first used and defined.
15th November 2019 at 20:23
Is it acceptable to start a sentence with an acronym (given that the acronym has already been defined previously)?
    16th November 2019 at 10:04
    Hi, Astrid. Yes, it is fine to use an acronym at the start of a sentence.
Robert L Meyer
15th May 2020 at 01:45
If I use an acronym in the beginning of an document to make a long sentence easy to read, do I have to use the acronym every time I use the title again throughout the document? Later in the document shorter sentences are easy to read with the title spelled out, so I didn't think it was necessary to use the acronym.
    15th May 2020 at 13:04
    Hi, Robert. It's difficult to offer any advice without knowing more about the acronym and the context you are using it in, so you may want to submit the document for proofreading if you'd like specific help, but the two main guidelines in this respect are: 1) If you are using a style guide/sheet, make sure to follow its instructions. 2) However you choose to present acronyms, try to ensure clarity and consistency.
22nd May 2020 at 15:54
Hi, I'm writing an academic paper on tuberculosis. The first time I wrote tuberculosis I include (TB) after it, and then used TB throughout the paper, but in some contexts the sentence sounds better with the full word. Is it okay to use the full word after having abbreviated it or should I be writing TB every time?
    24th May 2020 at 12:21
    Hi, Louise. Unless you're using a style guide that specifies only using the abbreviated version after introducing it, it should be fine to use the full term in places if it helps to ensure clarity.
1st April 2021 at 20:52
The first time I use the full terminology is inside a bracket: "(subjective well-being)", this is commonly abbreviated to SWB but it is not common enough to not introduce the original phrase first. So, I would end up with a bracket inside a bracket "(subjective well-being (SWB))" which does not seem correct for academic writing. Any suggestions? Thank you in advance
    2nd April 2021 at 09:31
    Hi, Jack. The most common convention for nesting brackets is to use square brackets inside the first set of parentheses: e.g. ‘(subjective well-being [SWB])’. Alternatively, you might be able to rephrase slightly or use a different form of parenthetical to avoid the nested brackets: e.g. ‘This concept, subjective well-being (SWB), is discussed…’ or ‘This concept – subjective well-being (SWB) – is discussed…’. Hope that helps!

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